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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses Times New Roman 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

We encourage our authors to follow these guidelines in preparing their manuscripts.
Title Page
: this will contain the paper title, name(s) of authors, name of institution and contact address. Corresponding authors must include their e-mail address and phone numbers below their address.

  1. Abstract: This should not be more than 250 words accurately and informatively summarizing the scope and main findings of the paper. Format should be font 12, single line Times New Roman, followed by not less than 5 appropriate key words.
  2. Main Text: Full papers should not be more than 10 pages in A4 paper size, normal margin of 2.5cm round. Tables and figures should be accommodated in the specified pages and appear where they are cited in the text. Preferably, manuscript should be subdivided into sections/headings, namely Introduction, Methodology/Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, and Conclusion and Recommendations.

Introduction: This should include background information, problem statement, justification, objectives and hypotheses where applicable.

Methodology/Materials and Methods: Should contain the study area, population of the study, sampling procedure, method of data collection and analytical techniques. This will be followed by results and discussion, conclusion and recommendations (if any) and, references.

References: Referencing style should be APA latest edition. Do not cite unnecessarily except you have read the work. Citations of authors in the text should be made by naming up to the first two authors, or if there are more, using the first name and et al. and the year of publication. Where there are more than one reference, they should be listed in date order and separated by semicolons. Two or more papers by the same author(s) in the same year are differentiated by ‘a’ and ‘b’, etc placed after the year.  References to unpublished research should be made only if they are essential and must include addresses at which readers can obtain or consult document(s). References must be listed in the reference list at the end of the paper.